आपरेशनल एम्प्लिफायर के उपयोग
रेखीय परिपथों में प्योग (Linear circuit applications) [संपादित करें]
तुलना करने के लिये (Comparator) [संपादित करें]
Compares two voltages and switches its output to indicate which voltage is larger.
(where is the supply voltage and the opamp is powered by and .)
इन्वर्टिंग एम्प्लिफायर (Inverting amplifier) [संपादित करें]
Uses negative feedback to invert and amplify a voltage (multiplies by a negative constant, which can be greater or less than -1).
- (because is a virtual ground)
- A third resistor, of value , added between the non-inverting input and ground, while not necessary, minimizes errors due to input bias currents.
व्युत्क्रम न करने वाला एम्प्लिफायर ( Non-inverting amplifier) [संपादित करें]
Amplifies a voltage (multiplies by a constant greater than 1)
- Input impedance
- The input impedance is at least the impedance between non-inverting () and inverting () inputs, which is typically 1 MΩ to 10 TΩ, plus the impedance of the path from the inverting () input to ground (i.e., in parallel with ).
- Because negative feedback ensures that the non-inverting and inverting inputs match, the input impedance is actually much higher.
- Although this circuit has a large input impedance, it suffers from error of input bias current.
- The non-inverting () and inverting () inputs draw small leakage currents into the operational amplifier.
- These input currents generate voltages that act like unmodeled input offsets. These unmodeled effects can lead to noise on the output (e.g., offsets or drift).
- Assuming that the two leaking currents are matched, their effect can be mitigated by ensuring the DC impedance looking out of each input is the same.
- The voltage produced by each bias current is equal to the product of the bias current with the equivalent DC impedance looking out of each input. Making those impedances equal makes the offset voltage at each input equal, and so the non-zero bias currents will have no impact on the difference between the two inputs.
- A resistor of value
- which is the equivalent resistance of in parallel with , between the source and the non-inverting () input will ensure the impedances looking out of each input will be matched.
- The matched bias currents will then generate matched offset voltages, and their effect will be hidden to the operational amplifier (which acts on the difference between its inputs) so long as the CMRR is good.
- Very often, the input currents are not matched.
- Most operational amplifiers provide some method of balancing the two input currents (e.g., by way of an external potentiometer).
- Alternatively, an external offset can be added to the operational amplifier input to nullify the effect.
- Another solution is to insert a variable resistor between the source and the non-inverting () input. The resistance can be tuned until the offset voltages at each input are matched.
- Operational amplifiers with MOSFET-based input stages have input currents that are so small that they often can be neglected.
डिफरेंशियल एम्प्लिफायर ( Differential amplifier) [संपादित करें]
The circuit shown is used for finding the difference of two voltages each multiplied by some constant (determined by the resistors).
The name "differential amplifier" should not be confused with the "differentiator", also shown on this page.
- Differential (between the two input pins) = (Note: this is approximate)
Amplified difference [संपादित करें]
Whenever and ,
Difference amplifier [संपादित करें]
वोल्टेज अनुगामी (Voltage follower) [संपादित करें]
Used as a buffer amplifier, to eliminate loading effects or to interface impedances (connecting a device with a high source impedance to a device with a low input impedance). Due to the strong feedback, this circuit tends to get unstable when driving a high capacity load. This can be avoided by connecting the load through a resistor.
- (realistically, the differential input impedance of the op-amp itself, 1 MΩ to 1 TΩ)
योजी प्रवर्धक (Summing amplifier) [संपादित करें]
A summing amplifer sums several (weighted) voltages:
- When , and independent
- Output is inverted
- Input impedance of the nth input is ( is a virtual ground)
समाकलनी (Integrator) [संपादित करें]
Integrates the (inverted) signal over time
(where and are functions of time, is the output voltage of the integrator at time t = 0.)
- Note that this can also be viewed as a low-pass electronic filter. It is a filter with a single pole at DC (i.e., where ) and gain.
- There are several potential problems with this circuit.
- It is usually assumed that the input has zero DC component (i.e., has a zero average value). Otherwise, unless the capacitor is periodically discharged, the output will drift outside of the operational amplifier's operating range.
- Even when has no offset, the leakage or bias currents into the operational amplifier inputs can add an unexpected offset voltage to that causes the output to drift. Balancing input currents and replacing the non-inverting () short-circuit to ground with a resistor with resistance can reduce the severity of this problem.
- Because this circuit provides no DC feedback (i.e., the capacitor appears like an open circuit to signals with ), the offset of the output may not agree with expectations (i.e., may be out of the designer's control with the present circuit).
- Many of these problems can be made less severe by adding a large resistor in parallel with the feedback capacitor. At significantly high frequencies, this resistor will have negligible effect. However, at low frequencies where there are drift and offset problems, the resistor provides the necessary feedback to hold the output steady at the correct value. In effect, this resistor reduces the DC gain of the "integrator" – it goes from infinite to some finite value .
अवकलित्र ( Differentiator ) [संपादित करें]
Differentiates the (inverted) signal over time.
- The name "differentiator" should not be confused with the "differential amplifier," which is also shown on this page. The former takes a derivative and the latter takes a difference (i.e., does subtraction).
- Note that this can also be viewed as a high-pass electronic filter. It is a filter with a single zero at DC (i.e., where ) and gain.
इंस्ट्रुमेंटेशन एम्प्लिफायर (Instrumentation amplifier) [संपादित करें]
- Is made by adding a non-inverting buffer to each input of the differential amplifier to increase the input impedance.
स्क्मिट ट्रिगर (Schmitt trigger) [संपादित करें]
In this configuration, the hysteresis curve is non-inverting (i.e., very negative inputs correspond to a negative output and very positive inputs correspond to a positive output), and the switching thresholds are where is the greatest output magnitude of the operational amplifier.
Alternatively, the input and the ground may be swapped. In this configuration, the hysteresis curve is inverting (i.e., very negative inputs correspond to a positive output and vice versa), and the switching thresholds are . Such a configuration is used in the relaxation oscillator shown below.
रिलैक्शेशन एम्प्लिफायर (Relaxation oscillator) [संपादित करें]
By using an RC network to add slow negative feedback to the inverting Schmitt trigger, a relaxation oscillator is formed. The feedback through the RC network causes the Schmitt trigger output to oscillate in an endless symmetric square wave (i.e., the Schmitt trigger in this configuration is an astable multivibrator).
इंदडक्टैंस गाइरेटर (Inductance gyrator) [संपादित करें]
Simulates an inductor.
शून्य स्तर अनुसूचक (Zero level detector) [संपादित करें]
Voltage divider reference
- Zener sets reference voltage
ऋणात्मक प्रतिबाधा परिवर्तक (Negative impedance converter (NIC)) [संपादित करें]
Creates a resistor having a negative value for any signal generator
- In this case, the ratio between the input voltage and the input current (thus the input resistance) is given by:
In general, the components , , and need not be resistors; they can be any component that can be described with an impedance.
वीन-ब्रिज दोलक ( Wien bridge oscillator ) [संपादित करें]
Produces a pure sine wave.
अरेखीय संरचनाएं (Non-linear configurations) [संपादित करें]
Precision rectifier [संपादित करें]
Although there are some limitations, this super diode circuit behaves like an ideal diode for the load .
Logarithmic output [संपादित करें]
- The relationship between the input voltage and the output voltage is given by:
- where is the saturation current.
- If the operational amplifier is considered ideal, the negative pin is virtually grounded, so the current flowing into the resistor from the source (and thus through the diode to the output, since the op-amp inputs draw no current) is:
- where is the current through the diode. As known, the relationship between the current and the voltage for a diode is:
- This, when the voltage is greater than zero, can be approximated by:
- Putting these two formulae together and considering that the output voltage is the negative of the voltage across the diode (), the relationship is proven.
Note that this implementation does not consider temperature stability and other non-ideal effects.
Exponential output [संपादित करें]
- The relationship between the input voltage and the output voltage is given by:
where is the saturation current.
- Considering the operational amplifier ideal, then the negative pin is virtually grounded, so the current through the diode is given by:
when the voltage is greater than zero, it can be approximated by:
The output voltage is given by:
अन्य उपयोग [संपादित करें]
- audio and video pre-amplifiers and buffers
- voltage comparators
- differential amplifiers
- differentiators and integrators
- precision rectifiers
- voltage regulator and current regulator
- analog-to-digital converter
- digital-to-analog converter
- voltage clamps
- oscillators and waveform generators
- Schmitt trigger
- Active filter
- Analog computer
- Capacitance multiplier
इन्हें भी देखें [संपादित करें]
- आपरेशनल एम्प्लिफायर
- करेंट-फीडबैक आपरेशन एम्प्लिफायर
- आपरेशनल ट्रांसकंडक्टेंस एम्प्लिफायर (Operational transconductance amplifier)
- आवृत्ति समायोजन (Frequency compensation)
सन्दर्भ [संपादित करें]
अन्य पठनीय सामग्री [संपादित करें]
- Paul Horowitz and Winfield Hill, The Art of Electronics. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989 ISBN 0-521-37095-7
- Sergio Franco, Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002 ISBN 0-07-232084-2
बाहरी कड़ियाँ [संपादित करें]
- Introduction to op-amp circuit stages, second order filters, single op-amp bandpass filters, and a simple intercom
- पीडीऍफ (1.96 MiB)
- Hyperphysics – descriptions of common applications
- पीडीऍफ (163 KiB)
- पीडीऍफ (962 KiB)
- पीडीऍफ (1.06 MiB) – Analog Devices Application note
- पीडीऍफ (173 KiB)
- पीडीऍफ (2.00 MiB) – Texas Instruments Application note
- Low Side Current Sensing Using Operational Amplifiers
- Logarithmic amplifier
- Precision half-wave rectifier
- Precision full-wave rectifier
- पीडीऍफ (165 KiB)
- Logarithmically variable gain from a linear variable component
- ECE 209: Operational amplifier basics – Brief document explaining zero error by naive high-gain negative feedback. Gives single OpAmp example that generalizes typical configurations.
- ECE 327: Practical Integrators and Operational Amplifier Offset – Discusses sources of and ways of fixing offset and drift problems.
- ECE 327: Voltage Regulators Procedures and Explanations – In the "Improving dynamic performance" section, discusses methods of using bypass capacitors to improve PSRR of components in designs.
- Impedance and admittance transformations using operational amplifiers by D. H. Sheingold