अन्नामाचार्य

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
यहाँ जाएँ: भ्रमण, खोज
Sri Tallapaka Annamacharya
उपनाम अन्नामाचार्य
जन्म साँचा:जन्मतिथि।
मृत्यु फ़रवरी 23, 1503(1503-02-23) (उम्र 94)
शैली(यां) कर्नाटक संगीत
व्यवसाय संत, कवि
वाद्य तंबूरा
वेबसाइट http://www.annamayya.org/

श्री तल्लापाका अन्नामाचार्य (శ్రీ తాళ్ళపాక అన్నమాచార్య) या सीधे अन्नामाचार्य (मई 9, 1408- फरवरी 23, 1503) एक तेलुगु संत कवि और कर्नाटक संगीत रचयिता थे। अन्नामाचार्य दक्षिण भारत के पहले संगीतज्ञ थे जिन्होंनेसंकीर्तन की रचना की। उन्होंने तिरूमाला सात पर्वतों के देवता भगवान वेंकटेश्वर की स्तुति में अनेक भजनों की रचना की। तेलुगु भाषा भाषी उन्होंने पद-कविता का पितामह मानते हैं। जाता है।[1]. अन्नामाचार्य के अधिकतर भजन आध्यात्मिकता (मधुर भक्ति भाव) से भरे हैं।

आरंभिक जीवन[संपादित करें]

अन्नामाचार्य का जन्म बैशाख शुद्ध पूर्णिमा को (९ मई १४०९) को भारत के आंध्रप्रदेश राज्य के कड़प्पा जिले के एक गांव में हुआ।.[2]

साहित्यिक जीवन[संपादित करें]

भगवान वेंकटेश्वर की स्तुति में अन्नामाचार्य ने ३२,००० भजनों संकीर्तनों की रचना की।[3], लेकिन इनमें महज १३००० रचनाएं ही इस समय उपलब्ध हैं। उनके भजन दो प्रकार के हैं-आध्यात्मिक और श्रृंगारिक[4], हालांकि ज्यादातर रचनाएं श्रृंगारिक हैं। उनकी आध्यात्मिक रचनाएं वैष्णव दर्शन पर आधारित है। अन्नामाचार्य रामानुजाचार्य संप्रदाय के थे। उन्होंने अहोबिला मठ में श्री सतागोपा यतींद्र से दीक्षा ग्रहण की।।

He dwells on the subjects of morality, Dharma, righteousness, etc. in his spiritual songs. His erotic songs worship Lord Venkateswara by describing his amorous and romantic adventures, a tradition now known as Madhura Bhakti. Most of these songs describe the adventures of Venkateswara and Alamel Manga, while others describe the Bhakti of Krishna's devotees.

He was one of the first few who opposed the social stigma towards the untouchable castes in his era[5], with his sankeertanas explaining that the relationship between God and human is the same irrespective of the latters' color, caste and financial status, in beautiful yet powerful usage of words in his song "Brahmam Okkate Parabrahmam Okkate..."

His choice of words gives a mellifluous tone to his songs, charming the listener. His prodigious literary career that produced about 32,000 songs, many of which were greatly acclaimed, has earned him a place among the all-time greats of telugu literature.[6]

जीवन की प्रमुख घटनाएं[संपादित करें]

His meeting with Purandara Dasa in Tirumala. Once when Purandara Dasa visited Tirumala he heard a great old man singing his composition in front of the Almighty Srinivasa. He at once approached the old man and said that the song was composed for practising music. At the same time, Sri Sri Vyasaraya of the Vyasaraya mutt intervened and introduced the great old man as Talapaka Anammacharya to Purandara Dasa. This is one of the major event in the history of Music where two great souls met each other and paid due respect to each other.Purandara Dasa is revered as the Father of Carnatic Music who formulated the music as it is today. The composition Sri Annamacharya sang is like Padumanabha Paramapurusha

Sankirtanas (songs)[संपादित करें]

An ardent devotee of Lord Venkateswara of Tirupati, AP, Annamacharya (also known as Annamayya) successfully composed more than 32,000 sankeertanas (Carnatic compositions) in the Carnatic music tradition. Though a great feat in itself, it still falls short of the estimated 475,000 sankeertanas composed by Purandara Dasa(known as the 'Father of Carnatic Music'). While enjoying popularity in his own days, his compositions were forgotten for over three centuries for some inexplicable reason. They were later found engraved on copper plates, hidden for centuries inside the Sri Venkateswara temple at Tirumala.

Annamacharya considered his compositions as floral offerings to God. In the poems, he praises Venkateswara, describes his love for him, argues and quarrels with the Lord, confesses the devotee's failures and apprehensions, and surrenders himself to Venkateshwara. His songs are classified into the Adhyaatma (spiritual) and Sringaara (romantic) sankeertanas genres.

Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams (TTD) has been successfully endeavouring to preserve the rich heritage of his compositions. The sustained efforts of dedicated scholars and musicians during the last thirty years have also helped revive their popularity among the Telugu people.

The sankeertanas engraved on copper plates were found in the Tirumala temple just opposite the Hundi, concealed in a very small room. It is said only 12,000 of the 32,000 sankeertanas were found. No leads have been available to trace the remaining sankeertanas. Some personnel involved in deciphering the plates say that the people of those days could have melted the copper plates for personal use.

लोकप्रिय संस्कृति[संपादित करें]

The telugu film "Annamaya" was based on his story. It was released on 13th May 1997. It starred Nagarjuna Akkineni as Annamacharya. The cast included RamyaKrishna, Suman, Mohanbabu. It proved to be a massive hit-probably an epoch making movie in Telugu industry. The film was directed by ace veteran K.Raghavendra Rao who is considered as one of the most influential directors of the Telugu Film Industry. The tunes composed by M.M. Keeravani topped the charts for a long period. The audio of this film has had the greatest sales to date in Telugu Film industry. This film also received many Awards including a national award. It was produced under VMC banner. The film undoubtably left an indelible mark in the audience. His sankirtanas are very popular amongst Carnatic singers and connoisseurs, especially in the state of Andhra Pradesh.

The programme, LakshaGala Sankirthanarchana, some 160,000 people sang seven Annamayya keertanas in Hyderabad, creating a new Guinness record on May 10, 2009.[7]

व्यक्तिगत जीवन[संपादित करें]

Annamacharya lived for 95 years until Phalguna Bahula Dwadasi (12th day after full moon) in the year Dhundhubhi (February 23, 1503). His wife, Thimmakka[8], was also a poet, and had written Subhadra Kalyanam, and is considered the first Telugu woman poet. His son PeddaTirumalacharya is also a well-known vaggeyakari (poet).

लोकप्रिय भजन[संपादित करें]

Some popular sankeertanas are[9]:

  • Adivo alladivo sri Harivasamu
  • Kondalalo nelakonna koneti rayudu vadu
  • Bhavamu lona bhahyamu nandunu
  • Muddugare Yasoda mungita muthyamu veedu
  • Podagantimayya mimmu Purushotthama
  • Kanti Sukravaramu gadiya ledinta
  • Antharyami alasiti solasiti inthata née sharanune
  • Kalaganti kalaganti ippudetu kalaganti[10]
  • Eduta evvaru leru antha Vishnu mayame
  • Enta mantramuna evvaru talachina

Many of Annamayya's songs are popularized during the past 25 years by Garimella Balakrishna Prasad through his association with the Annamacharya Project of Tirumala Tirpathi Devasthanam and by the legendary Bharat Ratna M.S.Subbulakshmi through her Balaji Pancharatna Mala in the year 1980.

संदर्भ[संपादित करें]

बाहरी कड़ी[संपादित करें]