|इस लेख को अंग्रेज़ी से हिन्दी में अनूदित करने की आवश्यकता है।
यह लेख अंग्रेज़ी में लिखा है। यदि यह लेख अंग्रेज़ी भाषा के समुदाय के लिए बनाया गया है, इसका योगदान अंग्रेज़ी विकिपीडिया में किया जाना चाहिए। विकिपेडियाओं की सूची देखें।
अपने चित्र के बगल में खड़े अदूर
|जन्म नाम||मौताथु गोपालकृष्णन उन्नीथन|
|जन्म||3 जुलाई 1941
पल्लीकल, अदूर, त्रावणकोर, भारत
|व्यवसाय||निर्देशक, पटकथा लेखक, निर्मात|
|कार्यकाल||1965 – वर्तमान|
|माता-पिता||माधवन उन्नीथन, गौरी कुंजम्मा|
|प्रेरित||मलयालम समांतर सिनेमा|
मौताथु "अदूर" गोपालाकृष्णन उन्नीथन (जन्म जुलाई 3, 1941) सात बार भारतीय राष्ट्रीय फिल्म पुरस्कार जीतने वाले भारत के फिल्म निर्माता, पटकथा लेखक और फिल्म निर्माता. उनकी ज्यादातर फिल्में विश्वस्तर पर रिलीज नहीं हुईं. उन्होंने दुनियाभर के बहुत कम फिल्म समारोहों में शिरकत की. उन्होंने ज्यादातर फिल्में केरल में ही रिलीज हुईं.
गोपालकृष्णन क Gopalakrishnan was born on 3 July 1941 in the village of Pallickal (Medayil Bungalow) near Adoor, present day Kerala, India as the son of Madhavan Unnithan and Mouttathu Gauri Kunjamma. He started his artistic life as an actor in amateur plays when he was 8. Later he shifted his base to writing and direction and wrote and directed a few plays. After securing a degree in Economics, Political Science and Public Administration in 1961 from the Gandhigram Rural Institute, he worked as a Government officer near Dindigul in Tamilnadu . In 1962, he left his job to study screenwriting and direction from the Pune Film Institute. He completed his course from there with a scholarship from the Government of India. With his classmates and friends, Adoor established Chithralekha Film Society and Chalachithra Sahakarana Sangham; the organization was the first film society in Kerala and it aimed at production, distribution and exhibition of films in the co-operative sector.
Adoor has scripted and directed eleven feature films and about thirty Shorts and documentaries. Notable amongst the non-feature films are those on Kerala’s performing arts. Adoor's debut film the national award winning Swayamvaram(1972) was a milestone in Malayalam film history. The film was exhibited widely in various international film festivals including those held in Moscow, Melbourne, London and Paris. The films that followed namely Kodiyettam, Elippathayam, Mukhamukham, Anantharam, Mathilukal, Vidheyan and Kathapurushan lived up to the reputation of his first film and were well received by critics at various film festivals and fetched him many awards. However, Mukhamukham was criticized in Kerala while Vidheyan was at the centre of a debate due to the differences in opinion between the writer of story of the film Sakhariya and Adoor.
Adoor's later films are Nizhalkuthu, narrating the experiences of an executioner who comes to know that one of his subjects was innocent, and Naalu Pennungal, a film adaptation of 4 short stories by Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai.
All his films have won national and international awards (National award for best film twice, best director five times, and best script two times. His films have also won his actors and technicians several national awards). Adoor’s third feature, Elippathayam won him the coveted British Film Institute Award for 'the most original and imaginative film' of 1982. The International Film Critics Prize (FIPRESCI) has gone to him six times successively for Mukhamukham, Anantaram, Mathilukal, Vidheyan, Kathapurushan and Nizhalkkuthu. Winner of several international awards like the UNICEF film prize (Venice), OCIC film prize (Amiens), INTERFILM Prize (Mannheim) etc, his films have been shown in Cannes, Venice, Berlin, Toronto, London, Rotterdam and every important festival around the world. In consideration of his contribution to Indian cinema, the nation honoured him with the title of Padmashri in 1984.
Documentaries and New Cinema movement[संपादित करें]
Apart from nine feature films, he has over 30 short films and documentaries to his credit. The Helsinki Film Festival was the first film festival to have a retrospective of his films. He has headed the jury at the National Film Awards and many international film festivals.
Apart from his films, Adoor's major contribution towards introducing a new cinema culture in Kerala was the constitution of the first Film Society in Kerala, "Chitralekha Film Society". He also took active part in the constitution of "Chitralekha," Kerala's first Film Co-operative Society for film production. These movements triggered a fresh wave of films, called "art films," by directors like G Aravindan, PA Becker, KG George, Pavithran, and Raveendran. At a time this movement was so strong that even popular cinema synthesised with art cinema to create a new genre of films.
Style and Trademarks[संपादित करें]
Adoor has been known as a director who completely dictates every fine detail of his films. On the performance of actors in his movies, he stated that - "It is not the artist's job to do the detailing. I do not want different interpretations of roles that may clash with each other. It has to be absolutely unified." He normally does not encourage his crew to read the script or even the stories. The actors are told at the time of shooting about the role and the scenes before conducting several rehearsals. According to Adoor "[i]n movies, the actor is not performing to the audience like the stage actor. Here they are acting for me. I am the audience and I will decide whether it is correct or not, enough or not."
Awards and Milestones[संपादित करें]
Some of the awards Gopalakrishnan has won for his films include:
- Legion of Honour (2003)
- Dadasaheb Phalke Award — Lifetime Achievement Award in Film awarded by the Government of India (2004)
- National Film Awards — various categories for Swayamvaram, Kodiyettam, Elippathayam, Anantharam, Mathilukal, Vidheyan, Kathapurushan Nizhalkkuthu and Naalu Pennungal
- Kerala State Film Awards: 13 Awards won in various categories for various films (as of December 2007)[तथ्य वांछित]
- International Film Critics Prize (FIPRESCI) — won consecutively for six feature films (Mukhamukham, Anantaram, Mathilukal, Vidheyan, Kathapurushan and Nizhalkkuthu)
- London Film Festival — Sutherland Trophy — in 1982 for Elippathayam
- British Film Institute Award — Most Original Imaginative Film of 1982 — Elippathayam
- Commandeur of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by French Government (2003)
A retrospective of his films was conducted in
- Kolkata, by Seagull Foundation for the Arts and Nandan, 2009.
- The Slovenian International Film Festival, 2009.
- The Munich Film museum, 2009.
- The French Cinematheque,Paris, 1999.
Posts Held[संपादित करें]
Adoor also worked in several respected posts in the film fraternity. He was a member of Sivaramakarath committee formed by the Government of India for framing a national film policy. He was a national film award committee member in 1974. He was a member of jury in Venice, Singapore, Hawaii and Delhi international film festivals. He was the chairman of International Film Festival of Kerala in 1999. He headed the National Film Development Corporation in the years 1980–1983. He was the director of Pune Film and Television Institute. In the years 1975–1977, he was a member of the advisory board for National Film Archives, Pune.
|1965||A Great Day||20 Minutes||Short fiction|
|1966||A Day at Kovalam||30 Minutes||Documentary|
|1967||The Myth||50 Seconds||Short fiction||Merit Certificate, Expo-67, Montreal|
|1968||Danger at Your Door-step||20 Minutes||Documentary|
|1968||And Man created||8 Minutes||Documentary|
|1968||Manntharikal (Grains of Sand)||20 Minutes||Documentary|
|1969||Towards National STD||20 Minutes||Documentary|
|1969||A Mission of Love||30 Minutes||Documentary|
|1966||Your Food||60 Minutes||Documentary|
|1970||Pratisandhi (The impasse)||55 Minutes||Docu-drama|
|1971||Romance of Rubber||30 Minutes||Documentary|
|1972||Swayamvaram (One’s Own Choice)||125 Minutes||Feature film||National Awards for Best Film, Best Director, Best Actress and Best Cameraman|
|1973||Kilimanooril Oru Dasalakshadhipati (A Millionaire is Born)||20 Minutes||Documentary|
|1974||Guru Chengannur||17 Minutes||Documentary|
|1975||Past in Perspective||20 Minutes||Documentary|
|1977||Kodiyettam (Ascent)||128 Minutes||Feature film||National Awards for best regional film and best actor|
|1978||Four Shorts on Family Planning||16 Minutes||Documentary|
|1978||Four Shorts on Family Planning||16 Minutes||Documentary|
|1980||Chola Heritage||20 Minutes||Documentary|
|1981||Elippathayam (Rat-Trap)||121 Minutes||Feature film||Sutherland Trophy at 1982 London Film Festival
National Film Awards for the Best Feature Film in Malayalam and Best Audiography
|1984||Mukhamukham (Face to Face)||107 Minutes||Feature film||FIPRESCI Prize, New Delhi, National Awards for Best director, best screenplay, best audiography|
|1985||Eau/Ganga (Ganga-Water)||140 Minutes||Grand Prize, Cinema du reel, Paris|
|1987||Anantaram (Monologue)||125 Minutes||Feature film||FIPRESCI Prize, Karlovy Vary. National awards for best director, best screenplay, and best audiography|
|1990||Mathilukal (The Walls)||117 Minutes||Feature film||FIPRESCI prize, Venice, UNICEF Film Prize, Venice, OCIC Prize, Amiens. National Award for best director, best actor, best regional film and best audiography|
|1993||Vidheyan (The Servile)||112 Minutes||Feature film||Feature FIPRESCI and Special Jury Prize, Singapore. Interfilm Jury Prize, Mannheim. Netpac prize, Rotterdam. National Award for best actor and best regional film|
|1995||Kathapurushan (The Man of the Story)||107 Minutes||Feature film||FIPRESCI Prize, National award for the best film|
|1995||Kalamandalam Gopi||43 Minutes||Documentary|
|2002||Nizhalkkuthu (Shadow Kill)||90 Minutes||Feature film||FIPRESCI, Mumbai. National award for best regional film|
|2005||Kalamandalam Ramankutty Nair||73 Minutes||Documentary|
|2007||Dance of the Enchantress||72 Minutes||Documentary|
|2007||Naalu Pennungal (Four Women)||105 Minutes||Feature film||National Award for best director|
|2008||Oru Pennum Randaanum (A Climate for Crime)||115 Minutes||Feature film||Kerala State award for best director 2009|
- Page on Adoor Gopalakrishnan at Kerala tourism, http://www.keralatourism.org/index.php?zone=4&menu=59&id=21, अभिगमन तिथि: 2008-02-08
- "'Naalu Pennungal' not complex like my other films: Adoor". Yahoo India Movies. http://www.adoorgopalakrishnan.com/profile.htm. अभिगमन तिथि: 2009-05-28.
- "Adoor honoured with Padma award". Rediff.com. 21 मार्च 2006. http://www.rediff.com/news/2006/mar/21adoor.htm. अभिगमन तिथि: 2009-05-28.
- "Official Website of Adoor Gopalakrishnan". http://in.movies.yahoo.com/news-detail/15894/Naalu-Pennungal-complex-like-films-Adoor.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2009-05-28.
- "Official Website of Adoor Gopalakrishnan". http://www.adoorgopalakrishnan.com/profile.htm. अभिगमन तिथि: 2009-05-28.
- "Adoor receives French honour". The Times of India. 22 अक्टूबर 2003. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-245928,prtpage-1.cms. अभिगमन तिथि: 2008-07-14.
- "Adoor Gopalakrishnan’s Retrospective in Kolkata". Sify. 9 मार्च 2009. http://sify.com/PRIVOXY-FORCE/movies/fullstory.php?id=14867560. अभिगमन तिथि: 2009-05-29.
- "Adoor retrospective at Slovenian festival". The Hindu. 15 नवम्बर 2008. http://blogs.thehindu.com/films/?p=4845. अभिगमन तिथि: 2009-05-29.
- "Adoor retrospective". The Hindu. 5 सितंबर 2009. http://blogs.thehindu.com/films/?p=4845. अभिगमन तिथि: 2009-05-29.
- "Interview: Adoor". Cinema of Malayalam. http://www.cinemaofmalayalam.net/adoor_interview_df.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2009-05-29.